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URW suggests that all of the methods of operation be focused upon a singular specific target. This also suggests that each operation would be on a relative scale quite small, and that each operation would vary its methods based upon the unique characteristics of the target.

An ability to alternate the means employed to attain the objective, also suggest that OPTO may seek to acquire target information from the easiest route, or to reach desired targets through indirect means. In a widely reported incident, China was recently accused of hacking into Lockheed Martin to steal information regarding the advanced F fighter. The relative humility in the selection of objectives suggests a strategic preference for combining and deploying the tools of URW in OPTO without being detected. The flexibility in choosing the means, and the caution in choosing the ends, suggest a strategy that maximizes strategic gain in each realm, while maintaining plausible deniability.

Demoralization (warfare) - Wikipedia

The authors of URW view US obsession with technology as a strategic vulnerability, that is alone incapable of guaranteeing a strategic upper hand. Army cadets stood guard over a network around the clock while hackers from the National Security Agency attempted to hack into a network setup for the simulation. It may be leading, but it will not be alone, much less never-changing. This is in part because, the means of engaging in OPTO are considerably less expensive than confronting a super-power on the conventional battlefield.

Information as a strategic national asset opens opportunities for exploitation, manipulation and theft. In all such cases, the direct assault of new ideas provokes a stubborn resistance, thus intensifying the difficulty of producing a change of outlook. Conversion is achieved more easily and rapidly by unsuspected infiltration of a different idea or by an argument that turns the flank of instinctive opposition.

The recent discovery of GhostNet, as well as calls for dumping the US dollar as a reserve currency suggest that China may actually become more bold in its employment of OPTO as it becomes more confident in its conventional armed forces. These areas include conflicts ranging from ideology to market shares. More conventional flash points, between the US and China include possible conflicts over the independence of Taiwan, the legal status of the South China Sea, oil drilling rights surrounding Japan, satellite weapons and any open war on the Korean peninsula.

Whether these areas of potential conflict reach the point of open war or not, the US should anticipate and plan to defend against aggressive OPTO. Beginning a dialogue about these areas of mutual concern such as cyber and economic warfare could lessen our vulnerability to the strategies proposed in URW.

There is a historic example of using strategic dialogue to decrease mutual vulnerability. Unfortunately not every component of OPTO lends itself to strategic dialogue. While there is ample evidence that both nations engage in unregulated cyber warfare, other spheres of OPTO remain more difficult to define. URW explicitly advocates for strategies and tactics where plausible deniability can be maintained.

Meaningful bilateral negotiations would require both China and the US to have the courage Yung and integrity to negotiate in good faith and from a perspective of mutual respect and responsibility.

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An Introduction to Psychological Warfare

URW was published ten years ago, and we need to consider what new forms of OPTO have been developed during this period. The most substantive threats posed by URW accumulate over time. Ignoring the threats and risks posed by URW, enables the synergy between these methods to gradually erode our strategic assets.

The US needs to move beyond playing catch up with OPTO and re-orient its strategic vision of how 21st century war is waged. Learning from the principles of URW, the US should accelerate efforts to engage in combination warfare and OPTO that can shape the strategic landscape of the 21st century. The author would like to thank Mr. Mike Mc-Connell, May 17, Olson, A United Nations report advocates for the formulation of national and international laws that would criminalize concealing ones identity online in order to commit a crime.

Air Force, edited by James. Mulvenon and Richard Yang. This is truly fantastic, yet it also causes people to ponder deeply. No, what we are referring to are not changes in the instruments of war, the technology of war, the modes of war, or the forms of war. What we are referring to is the function of warfare. The Chinese government employs increasingly sophisticated methods to limit content online, including a combination of legal regulation, surveillance, and punishment to promote self-censorship, as well as technical controls.

Fairbank, Harvard University Press. See also p. As a result, the national strategy for ensuring the realization of national security targets, namely, what is generally called grand strategy, also necessitates carrying out adjustments, which go beyond military strategies and even political strategies. The key to whether or not victory is won in a war is nowhere else but in what things you are able to pack into this basket.

This is because every objective which is achievable is limited. No matter what the reason, setting objectives which exceed allowable limits of the measures available will only lead to disastrous consequences. URW P.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

The key to its standing erect and not collapsing lies in whether it can to a large extent form composite force in all aspects related to national interest. It should not be said that as soon as there were no longer two armies facing off against each other that American military circles and even he American Congress would produce an empty feeling at having lost their goal. The result was that without an enemy, one still had to be created. Therefore, even if it is a tiny area such as Kosovo, they cannot pass up an opportunity to try out their frosty blades.

These common American soldiers who should be on the battlefield have now become the most costly security in war, like precious china bowls that people are afraid to break.

All of the opponents who have engaged in battle with the American military have probably mastered the secret of success - if you have no way of defeating this force, you should kill its rank and file soldiers. This is why people often refer to military ideology, military theory, and military practice as military philosophy, military science, and military art. Gates, p. Homepage Navigation Content Sitemap Search.

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Space Warfare 3. Diplomatic warfare 4. Bio-Chemical Warfare 5. Sanction Warfare 6. Terrorist Warfare 7.

IO, SC, PD, what's in a name?

Electronic Warfare 8. Smuggling Warfare throwing markets into confusion and attacking economic order ; 9. Regulatory Warfare Guerilla Warfare Virtual Warfare Ideological Warfare Psychological warfare spreading rumors to intimidate the enemy and break down his will ; Media warfare manipulating what people see and hear in order to lead public opinion along ; Drug warfare obtaining sudden and huge illicit profits by spreading disaster in other countries ; Technological warfare creating monopolies by setting standards independently ; Its perception of being at war or in a ' permanent state of conflict ' with the US and its allies were furthered by the Maidan uprising in Ukraine.

Russia's activities in former Soviet states have been described as Hobbesian and redolent of Cold War thinking. It is an interesting term, but I would apply it above all to the United States and its war strategy — it is truly a hybrid war aimed not so much at defeating the enemy militarily as at changing the regimes in the states that pursue a policy Washington does not like.

It is using financial and economic pressure, information attacks, using others on the perimeter of a corresponding state as proxies and of course information and ideological pressure through externally financed non-governmental organisations. Is it not a hybrid process and not what we call war?

General Philip Breedlove , in a US Senate hearing February , claimed that Russia is using refugees to weaken Europe, directing the influx of refugees in the continent to destabilize areas and regions in terms of economy and to create social unrest. A similar statement was made by Ilkka Kanerva , Finland's former foreign minister and now chairman of the country's parliamentary Defense Committee. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on War History. Prehistoric Ancient Post-classical Early modern Late modern industrial fourth-gen.

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Information Week Government. Howard, Michael; Paret, Peter eds. On War.